Welcome Year 11 & 12



HSC Marking Simulation


http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/technology/11_12/information/ip_hsc.htm

A Glossary of Key Words

http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/glossary_keywords.html


https://quizlet.com/28056412/ipt-hsc-chapter-1-glossary-flash-cards/

http://hsccentral.weebly.com/information-process-technology-ipt1.html

https://sites.google.com/a/jamesruse.nsw.edu.au/woo/hsc-ipt/2010-2011/classwork-tasks#TOC-Multimedia-Systems

http://iptnow.wikispaces.com/

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/HSC_Information_Processing_and_Technology

http://marieipt.wikispaces.com/Communications+Systems


http://www.boredofstudies.org/view.php?course=18

Information Processes and Technology


https://malyn.edublogs.org/tag/ipt/

http://www4.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/course/higher-school-certificate/information-processes-and-technology/


http://www.studytonight.com/dbms/database-normalization.php



Excel and Access tutorials
http://www.gcflearnfree.org/excel2007

http://www.gcflearnfree.org/access2007


Excel Activitieshttp://web.utk.edu/~dhouston/excel/exercise.html



Case study :
Port Nelson Tourism


Port Nelson Tourism is a small, privately owned business that works with the local community to promote the region's tourist
attractions. It produces printed material to advertise tourist attractions, such as beaches, fun parks, sporting activities and
cruises. The promotional material is distributed at tourist information booths, motels, tourist attractions and shopping
centres. Port Nelson Tourism receives income by charging businesses for inclusion in their printed material and by selling
advertising space.


Port Nelson Tourism would like to expand their business by developing a restaurant guide. This guide would be
aimed at both tourists and local residents. To develop a solution, the manager of Port Nelson Tourism completed the system
development cycle:


Understanding the problem—
a meeting was arranged with the owners of the major restaurants in the region. This provided general directions about the
possible formats and typical information to be included. Then a survey was sent out to all restaurants, and this data
was analysed to determine the requirement report.


Making decisions—
a feasibility study was completed that recommended a 40-page booklet be published for the summer season and that two additional
staff be contracted for the project. A project plan was then developed to schedule subprojects, such as data collection and graphics. The analysis report outlined specifications for the required information technology and a more detailed costing. A process of
checking was to be implemented to validate the data.


Designing solutions—
a data flow diagram was used to specify the information processes and the flow of data. Each restaurant was visited, the
employees were interviewed, and photographs were taken. A highperformance personal computer and a digital camera were purchased along with a word processing program, painting program and desktop publishing program. A template for the
publication was created to ensure consistency. Ergonomic furniture was purchased in consultation with the staff.


Implementing—
staff were given some brief training with the new system, as they were experienced users. The booklet was created in a desktop publishing program by importing the text from a word processing program and the graphics from a painting program. Each
restaurant was given a draft copy of the booklet before publication.


Testing, evaluating and maintaining —
the new system was monitored throughout the implementation stage, and changes to the front page design
were suggested. At the end of the summer season, a series of interviews were completed to evaluate the performance
of the finished product. The feedback was positive; however, some changes to the structure of the booklet were suggested. The manager of Port Nelson Tourism evaluated the project and recommended a second edition be published next year.

Exercise
1. Describe the final stage of the system development cycle.
2. What does the computer operator do if the system breaks down?
3. Describe the role of a manager.
4. What is testing?
5. How is a new system evaluated?
6. List two tasks that may be performed during maintenance.
7. What is an operation manual?
8. Describe some of the factors for creating an easy-to-use operation manual.


LEARNING ACTIVITIES
1 Why should a new system be evaluated after installation?
2 If a system is designed correctly, it should carry out the required tasks. Why is there
a need for ongoing testing and evaluation?
3 A desktop publishing program was part of the solution in the case study.
Investigate the latest desktop publishing software. Suggest the most appropriate
packages for this situation. Justify your answer.
4 A high-performance personal computer was mentioned in the case study. Describe
a high-performance personal computer. List any peripheral devices that would be
required by Port Nelson Tourism to implement its new system. Investigate the
options and costs of each device. List these details.
5 Interviews were part of the evaluation in the case study. Which people should be
interviewed? Make a list of interview questions that could be used to evaluate the
restaurant guide.

IPT - SDLC Exercise - download and complete the exercise














Year 11 Board of Studies Syllabus

8 Content: Information Processes and Technology – Preliminary Course

8.1 Introduction to Information Skills and Systems

An information system has a purpose in that it addresses the need(s) of a group or an individual. It performs the information processes of collecting, organising, analysing, storing/retrieving, processing, transmitting/receiving and displaying. Information processes involve computer and non-computer activities. For the processes to occur, participants (people), data/information and information technologies (hardware and software) are required. The purpose for an information system defines who it is for and what they need. Information systems give rise to ethical issues for people directly and indirectly involved with them. They have a social impact on the environment in which they operate.

Outcomes

A student:
P1.1 describes the nature of information processes and information technology
P1.2 classifies the functions and operations of information processes and information technology
P2.1 identifies and describes the information processes within an information system
P2.2 recognises and explains the interdependence between each of the information processes
P3.1 identifies and describes social and ethical issues
P4.1 describes the historical developments of information systems and relates these to current and emerging technologies.

Students learn about:
Students learn to:
information systems in context
  • diagrammatic representation of an information system in context
  • diagrammatically represent a given scenario that involves an information system
  • the environment – everything that influences and is influenced by the information system
  • the purpose – a statement identifying who the information system is for and what it needs to achieve
  • who the information system is for includes individuals and organisations
  • the information system – a set of information processes requiring participants, data/information and information technology built to satisfy a purpose
  • information processes – computer based and non-computer based activities
  • information technology – hardware and software used in information processes
  • data – the raw material used by information processes
  • information – the output displayed by an information system
  • user – a person who views or uses the information output from an information system
  • participant – a special class of user who carries out the information processes within an information system

  • explain how an information system impacts on its environment and how it in turn impacts on the information system
  • describe the environment and purpose of an information system for a given context
  • explain how a given need can be supported by an information system
  • describe an information system in terms of its purpose
  • for a given scenario, identify the people who are:
– in the environment
– users of the information system
– participants in the information system
information processes
  • collecting – the process by which data is entered into or captured by a computer system, including:
– deciding what data is required
– how it is sourced
– how it is encoded for entry into the system
  • organising – the process by which data is structured into a form appropriate for the use of other information processes such as the format in which data will be represented
  • analysing – the process by which data is interpreted, transforming it into information
  • storing and retrieving – the process by which data and information is saved and accessed later
  • processing – a procedure that manipulates data and information
  • distinguish between, and categorise, the activities within an information system in terms of the seven information processes
  • use an existing information system to meet a simple need
  • manually step through a given information system identifying the information process
  • for a given information system, describe how the following relate to the information processes:
– participants
– data/information
– information technology
  • schematically represent the flow of data and information through a given information system, identifying the information processes
  • transmitting and receiving – the process that sends and receives data and information within and beyond information systems
  • displaying – the process that controls the format of information presented to the participant or user
the nature of data and information
  • data – the input to an information system
  • data representation – the different types of media, namely:
– images
– audio
– video
– text
– numbers
  • information – the output which has been processed by an information system for human understanding
  • the generation of information from data via the information processes
  • how information from one information system can be data for another information system
reasons for digital data representation
  • the need for quality data, including:
– accuracy
– timeliness
– accessibility
  • current data digitising trends, for example:
– newspapers on the Internet
– telephone system
– video on DVD
– facsimile
– media retrieval management
  • distinguish between data and information in a given context
  • categorise data as image, audio, video, text and/or numbers
  • identify the data and the information into which it is transformed, for a given scenario
  • identify examples of information systems that use information from another information system as data
  • explain why information technology uses digital data
  • describe advantages and disadvantages for the digital representation of data
social and ethical issues
  • social and ethical issues arising from the processing of information, including:
– privacy of the individual
– security of data and information
– accuracy of data and information
– data quality
– changing nature of work
– appropriate information use
– health and safety
– copyright laws
  • the people affected by social and ethical issues, including:
– participants within the information system
– users of the information system
– those in the environment
  • the ethical and social responsibility of developers
  • current government legislation to protect the individual and organisations
  • the use of information systems in fields such as manufacturing as well as the traditional fields of observation and recording
  • global information systems:
– where the purpose involves international organisations, or
– where the data and processes are distributed across national boundaries
  • describe social and ethical issues that relate to:
– information system users
– participants
  • ensure that relevant social and ethical issues are addressed
  • identify and explain reasons for the expansion of information systems, including:
– advances in technology
– suitability of information technology for repetitive tasks



8.2 Tools for Information Processes

In order to understand and build information systems, information processes must be understood. This topic examines each of the information processes by focusing on some of the tools used to carry them out. The tools include information technology and non-computer procedures. In this topic, tools are categorised and presented according to a particular information process. In reality, however, one tool may overlap several processes. One tool cannot operate in isolation; therefore, demonstrations of particular tools will involve additional tools and processes. Information processes and tools affect participants within the information system and people beyond it, giving rise to social and ethical issues. Additional tools for specific types of information systems will be examined in the HSC course.

Outcomes

A student:

P1.1 describes the nature of information processes and information technology
P1.2 classifies the functions and operations of information processes and information technology
P2.1 identifies and describes the information processes within an information system
P2.2 recognises and explains the interdependence between each of the information processes
P3.1 identifies and describes social and ethical issues
P4.1 describes the historical developments of information systems and relates these to current and emerging technologies
P5.1 selects and ethically uses computer based and non-computer based resources and tools to process information
P6.1 analyses and describes an identified need
P6.2 generates ideas, considers alternatives and develops solutions for a defined need
P7.1 recognises, applies and explains management and communication techniques used in individual and team-based project work
P7.2 uses and justifies technology to support individuals and teams



Students learn about:
Students learn to:
collecting
  • collecting – the process by which data is captured or entered into a computer system, including:
– deciding what data is required
– how it is sourced
– how it is encoded for entry into the system
  • hardware used for collection (See Course Specifications Document)
  • software used for collection (See Course Specifications Document)
  • non-computer procedures in collecting
– literature searches
– surveys and interviews
– form design for data collection
– manual recording of events
– existing non-computer data
  • social and ethical issues in collecting
– bias in the choice of what and where to collect data
– accuracy of the collected data
– copyright and acknowledgment of source data when collecting
– the rights to privacy of individuals on whom data is collected
– ergonomic issues for participants entering large volumes of data into an information system
  • for a given scenario, identify alternatives for data collection and choose the most appropriate one
  • use a range of hardware collection devices to collect different data types
  • describe the operation of a range of hardware collection devices
  • make predictions about new and emerging trends in data collection based on past practices
  • choose the most appropriate combination of hardware, software and/or non-computer tools to collect data from a given source
  • use the Internet to locate data for a given scenario
  • design forms that allow data to be accurately recorded and easily input into software applications
  • select and use appropriate communication skills to conduct interviews and surveys so that data can be accurately collected
  • identify existing data that can be collected for an information system for a given scenario
  • recognise personal bias and explain its impact on data collection
  • identify the privacy implications of particular situations and propose strategies to ensure they are respected
  • predict errors that might flow from data inaccurately collected
  • predict issues when collecting data that might arise when it is subsequently analysed and processed
organising
  • organising – the process by which data is structured into a form appropriate for use by other information processes
  • how different methods of organising affect processing, for example:
– letters of the alphabet represented as images rather than text
– numbers represented as text rather than numeric
  • choose the most appropriate format for a given set of data and identify and describe the most appropriate software and method to organise it
  • the way in which the hardware used for collection organises data by digitising images, audio, video, numeric and text
  • software for organisation (See Course Specifications Document)
  • non-computer tools for organising
– hard copy systems such as phone books, card catalogues and pen and paper forms
– pen and paper methods for organising data
  • social and ethical issues associated with organising, including:
– current trends in organising data, such as:
- the increase in hypermedia as a result of the World Wide Web
- the ability of software to access different types of data
- a greater variety of ways to organise resulting from advances in display technology
– the cost of poorly organised data, such as redundant data in a database used for mail-outs
  • describe how different types of data are digitised by the hardware that collects it
  • compare and contrast different methods of organising the same set of data using existing software applications
  • use software to combine data organised in different formats
  • use data dictionaries to describe the organisation of data within a given system
  • assess future implications when making decisions about the way data is organised
analysing
  • analysing – the process by which data can be represented and summarised so that humans can better understand it
  • hardware requirements for analysing, including:
– large amounts of primary and secondary storage allowing for fast processing
– fast processors allowing many rapid calculations
  • software features for analysis, including:
– searching/selecting data
– sorting
– modelling/simulations
– what-if scenarios
– charts and graphs to identify trends
– file comparison
  • non-computer tools, for analysing, including:
– searching manual filing systems
– non-computer models and simulations
  • social and ethical issues associated with analysis, including:
– unauthorised analysis of data
– data incorrectly analysed
– erosion of privacy from linking databases for analysis
  • identify hardware requirements to carry out a particular type of analysis
  • describe the best organisation for data for a particular type of analysis
  • use software analysis features in a range of software applications to analyse image, audio, video, text and numeric data
  • compare and contrast computer and non-computer tools for analysis on the basis of speed, volume of data that can be analysed, and cost
  • analyse data on individuals for the purpose it was collected
storing and retrieving
  • storing and retrieving – the two-step process by which data or information can be saved and reloaded to allow for:
– other processing to take place
– a temporary halt in the system
– backup and recovery
– the transfer of data or information
  • hardware for storing and retrieving
– hardware devices
(See Course Specifications Document)
– the characteristics of hardware, including:
- random or sequential access
- volatile or non-volatile
- permanent or non-permanent
  • the trend to faster and greater storage capacity over time
  • document the storage and retrieval process in an information system
  • describe the characteristics and operation of hardware devices used for storage and retrieval
  • use a range of hardware devices and associated software to store and retrieve information and data
  • store and retrieve data using a network
  • software for storing and retrieving
– hardware interface software
– file management software
– database management systems
– file formats for different data types
– Internet browser
- used to access a machine-independent data store
- using search engines to access data
– encryption/password protection
– security of stored data whether stored centrally or distributed
  • non-computer tools, including:
– paper based storage systems
– microfiche
– libraries
  • social and ethical issues, including:
– the security of stored data
– unauthorised retrieval of data
– advances in storage and retrieval technologies and new uses such as data matching
  • compare different file formats for storing the same data, explaining the features and benefits of each
  • use software features to secure stored data and information
  • retrieve and use data in an ethical way
processing
  • processing – a method by which data can be manipulated in different ways to produce a new value or result (eg calculating a total, filtering an email, changing the contrast of an image, changing the volume of a wave file)
  • hardware in processing
– hardware with fast processors, a lot of RAM and large storage capacity for image, video and audio processing
– increased processing speed, by:
- increased clock speeds
- increased bus capacity
– historical and current trends in CPU development
  • software for processing text, numeric, image, video and audio data
  • non-computer tools and processing
documenting procedures to be followed when processing
  • social and ethical issues associated with processing
– ownership of processed data
– bias in the way participants in the system process data
  • select appropriate hardware configurations for a specified type of processing
  • edit text data using word processors, desktop publishing, hypertext and database management systems
  • edit numeric data using spreadsheets and database management systems
  • edit image data using paint, draw and animation packages
  • edit video data using animation packages
  • edit audio data using mixing software
  • diagrammatically represent data processing
transmitting and receiving
  • transmitting and receiving – the process that transfers information and data within and between information systems
  • hardware for transmitting and receiving
– communications within a computer between peripheral devices and the CPU via buses
– the role of modems, including modulation and demodulation
– local area networks and wide area networks
  • software for transmitting and receiving
– communications packages
– transmitting and receiving text, numeric, image, audio and video
– electronic mail and its operation
  • identify examples of potential human bias in data processing
  • differentiate between the requirements for a local area network and a wide area network
  • transfer numeric, text, image, audio and video data and discuss the time to transfer and required bandwidth
  • describe concepts of downloading, uploading and streaming
  • non-computer tools for transmitting and receiving, such as mail, phone, fax and radio and television (transmit only)
  • social and ethical issues associated with transmitting and receiving
– accuracy of data received from the Internet
– security of data being transferred
– net-etiquette
– acknowledgment of data source
– global network issues, time zones, date fields, exchange rates
– changing nature of work for participants, such as work from home and telecommuting
– current developments and future trends in digital communications, radio and television
– the impact of the Internet on traditional business
  • demonstrate sending and receiving mail, with attachments, over an e-mail system
  • select a relevant technology for a given situation to allow computers to transmit and receive data or information
  • compare and contrast computer and non-computer based communication systems
  • describe and employ net-etiquette when using the Internet
  • predict and discuss possible future trends in communications and the impact they are likely to have on the transmitting and receiving of data/information
displaying
  • displaying – the method by which information is output from the system to meet a purpose
  • hardware for displaying
(See Course Specifications Document)
  • software for display
– interfaces for hardware display devices
– display features in applications packages, including:
- reporting
- formatting
- spacing
- merging
- tables
- charts
  • non-computer tools:
– traditional methods for displaying the different types of data
  • choose and justify the most appropriate method for displaying information given a particular set of circumstances
  • describe the operation of display hardware
  • use a range of hardware and software combinations to display different types of information
  • format a text document with appropriate use of fonts, spacing and layout for printed and screen displays
  • design and develop a simple web page
  • generate reports for display within a database
  • mail-merge information from a database into another application for display
  • create audio, image and video displays with presentation software
  • compare and contrast displays created without a computer to those created with a computer
  • identify, discuss and appreciate the widespread use of non-computer methods of displaying information
  • social and ethical issues associated with displaying
– communication skills of those presenting displays
– past, present and emerging trends in displays
– appropriate displays for a wide range of audiences, including:
- standards for display for the visually impaired
- displays suitable for young children
  • design a display for a wide variety of users
integration of processes
  • the interrelationships between the processes in a given system
  • one tool (such as software to develop a multimedia presentation) may involve several processes
  • recognise that processes can overlap, be concurrent or independent or not significant in a specific system




8.3 Developing Information Systems


New information systems are created when existing systems do not adequately meet the needs of users of the information system, or when there is a need that could be met by an information system. The success of a new system depends upon how well the problem is understood, how the system is designed, how it is tested, evaluated and maintained over time. This topic introduces students to the traditional method for developing systems. Students must engage in project work, both individually and in teams, which supports this understanding by planning, designing and implementing a series of discrete information systems. Alternatives to this model are presented in the HSC course.

Students may begin their project work at any time during the Preliminary course.

Project work requirements are described in the Course Structure on page 9.


Outcomes

A student:

P1.1 describes the nature of information processes and information technology
P1.2 classifies the functions and operations of information processes and information technology
P2.1 identifies and describes the information processes within an information system
P2.2 recognises and explains the interdependence between each of the information processes
P3.1 identifies and describes social and ethical issues
P4.1 describes the historical developments of information systems and relates these to current and emerging technologies
P5.1 selects and ethically uses computer based and non-computer based resources and tools to process information
P6.1 analyses and describes an identified need
P6.2 generates ideas, considers alternatives and develops solutions for a defined need
P7.1 recognises, applies and explains management and communication techniques used in individual and team-based project work
P7.2 uses and justifies technology to support individuals and teams



Students learn about:
Students learn to:
traditional stages in developing a system
  • understanding the problem
  • planning
  • designing
  • implementing
  • testing, evaluating and maintaining
  • recognise and apply appropriate stages in their project work
  • read and interpret the requirements for a new system in terms of:
– the needs of the users of the information system
– who the participants are
– the data/information to be used
– required information technology
– information processes
  • use a variety of design tools to help plan the structure of an information system
  • use an information system to generate information
complexity of systems
  • systems for individuals
  • systems for organisations
  • systems developed by individuals
  • systems developed by teams
  • read a set of specifications
  • understand the need for a time schedule
  • interpret Gantt charts
  • understand the need for journals and diaries
  • recognise the resources that are relevant, available and required for use in developing the system
  • modify or extend an existing system according to specifications
  • test and evaluate an existing system to see if it meets requirements and specifications
roles of people involved in systems development
  • different roles played by individuals in the team and communication between them
  • strengths and weaknesses of individual team members
– communication
– interpersonal
– technical
– organisational
  • recognise different roles of people and how they communicate throughout different stages of the project
  • produce a report stating the need, and how an information system will meet it
  • diagrammatically represent the information system in context
  • document the relationship between the new system, user of the information system and their need(s)
  • analyse and customise user interfaces and other tasks in applications software forming part of the solution
  • identify the training needs of users of the information system
    • document the procedures to be followed by participants
social and ethical issues
  • machine-centred systems simplify what computers do at the expense of participants
  • human-centred systems as those that make participants’ work as effective and satisfying as possible
  • how the relationships between participants change as a result of the new system
  • ensuring the new system provides participants with a safe work environment
  • awareness of the impact the system may have on the participants, including:
– opportunities to use their skills
– meaningful work
– need for change
– opportunities for involvement and commitment
  • implement systems that pay as much attention to the needs of participants as they do to information technology